NANDI MANTAPA, HOYSALESWARA TEMPLE, HALEBIDU, HASSAN, KARNATAKA, INDIA. Hoysaleswara temple is a temple dedicated to Hindu god Shiva. Halebidu was the 12th century capital of the Hoysalas. The Hoysaleswara temple was built during this time by Ketamala and attributed to Vishnuvardhana, the Hoysala ruler. It enshrines Hoysaleswara and Shantaleswara, named after the temple builder Vishnuvardhana Hoysala and his wife, Queen Shantala. The construction was completed in 1121 CE. . Then it was sacked by the armies of Malik Kafur, Muslim invader from the North India in the early 14th century, after which it fell into a state of disrepair and neglect. Previously known as Dorasamudra or Dwarasamudra, Halebidu is 16 km from Belur and 149 km from Mysore. The temple derives its name from the Hoysala ruler at that time, King Vishnuvardhana Hoysaleswara, though interestingly, the construction of the temple was initiated and financed by wealthy Shaiva (a Hindu sect) citizens of the city, prominent among who were Ketamalla and Kesarasetti. The temple building activity was taken up in competition to the construction of the Chennakesava Temple at Belur, a Vaishnava (a Hindu sect) temple. It faces a large tank which was built in the middle of the 11th century and received water through channels from an ancient anecut (dam) built over the Yagachi River. The tank preceded the temple by nearly 75 years. It is one of the largest temples dedicated to the god Shiva in South India. According to the art critic James Fergusson, the overall effect of the vertical and horizontal lines, the play of the outline, the effect of light and shade and the plan of the projections and recesses all amounts to a "marvellous exhibition of human labor to be found even in the patient east and surpasses anything in Gothic art". The outer walls of these temples contain an intricate array of stone sculptures. The temple of Halebidu, has been described by art critics James Fergusson and Percy Brown as an "outstanding example of Hindu architecture" and as the "supreme climax of Indian architecture".