Gyimesbükk közelében / near Gyimesbükk (Romania)
Here was the border of Hungary until 1920. The Treaty of Trianon, which cosed the 1st World War (signed on June 4 1920) assigned ca. 103,000 km2 from Hungary to Romania, among others the "Székely Land" (Székelyföld, Szeklerland), a ca. 15,000 km2 large historical region with ca. 80 % Hungarian majority.
Many tourists visit this place to see, where was the old border, and to remember.
The inhabitants are friendly - Romanians too - and help the tourists to follow the old border on the mountains with their eyes
Officially, the treaty of Trianon was intended to be a confirmation of the concept of the right for self-determination of nations and of the concept of nation-states replacing old multinational empires.
From the point of view of most non-Hungarians that lived in the former Kingdom of Hungary, after centuries of foreign rule, most of the peoples of former Austria-Hungary (often called a 'DUNGEON OF NATIONS' by them) would finally achieve a right for self-determination and independence, and be united with other members of their nation.
With the help of Nazi Germany and Italy, Hungary expanded its borders towards neighbouring countries at the outset of World War II, under the Munich Agreement (1938), the two Vienna Awards (1938 and 1940), following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia (occupation of northern Carpathian Ruthenia and eastern Slovakia) and following German aggression against Yugoslavia. This territorial expansion was short-lived, since the post-war boundaries agreed on at the Treaty of Paris in 1947 were nearly identical to those of 1920 (with three villages – Jarovce, Rusovce, and Čunovo – transferred to Czechoslovakia).
Thank you, tzili!
As you said, the "official" concept of the treaty was to validate the right of self-determination. Unfortunately they "forgot" to give (leave) the same right to Hungarians, when they took away territories with 70-80-90 % Hungarian majority too (approximately these were those regions, that were subject of the Vienna Awards), and integrated them into the new nation-states. The result: Millions of Hungarians forced in minority in foreign (and hostile) nation-states, and a Hungarian state with 90+ % Hungarians (so, without minorities).
Therefore, the revisionism of the Hungarian goverments between the world wars is comprehensible, although their politics wasn´t successful - especially after the German occupation of Hungary (1944), when Hungary was considered as a nazi state.
this is very interesting!
NAGY Albert: why are those nation-states hostile to the Hungarian minority? how did they establish the current borders?
I would like to correct one misconception in your text regarding the ethnic composition of the areas acquired by the Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Romania.
While there were areas with Hungarians accounting for 80-90 %, on the vast majority of the territory Hungarians accounted for much lower percentage. In total, Hungarians accounted for less than 30% percent of inhabitants of the territory we discuss. Even that data is based on highly controversial 1910 census, given Kingdom's oppresive ethnic policy.
The areas with high proportion of Hungarians are in many cases isolated and quite far from today's Hungarian border, with many milions non-Hungarians "in between". In other cases I agree with you that solution more just than the current one would be possible (especially in the areas just north of Danube in Slovakia).
Mára jelentősen megváltozott és idegenforgalmi látványossággá fejlődött az egykori indóház. A vár sajnos teljesen romokban hever, pedig turistaszállónak ideális lenne. A megszépült indóház:
oram, Rachotilko: Thank you for your comments, and sorry for the late answer!
oram: While those regions taken away by the treaty of Trianon were part of Hungary until 1920, Hungary was part of the Habsburg Empire, later the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (until 1918) under the leadership of the Austrian emperor. In order to ensure their position of power, the Austrian government often used different nationalities of the empire against each other by creating conflicts and hatred between them artificially. Of course, there are always some conflicts between two nationalities living together, so these actions were often succesful. The minorities began to hate the Hungarians, and vica versa. Somebody set a fire in the other village, then as a reply, people from the attacked nationality killed some hundred people from the other nationality. None was better than the other. Divide and conquer. And - this was the time of the great national movements of the 19th century. Minorities recognized their identity, and wanted to form their own nation-states. After the treaty of Trianon, the newly-formed nation-states tried to demonstrate, that they had right to acquire Hungarian territories, tried to ensure, that nobody will take these territories away later. So they began to change artificially the given ethnical proportions in these Regions by killing or deporting Hungarians. At the same time they settled there their nationality to increase their numbers.
Rachotilko: Sorry, I think my text was ambiguous. Of course, in some cases (like in the case of the Szekler Land) those regions with high Hungarian majority are far from today's Hungary, with many non-Hungarians in between. This is right. In Transsylvania and the Partium the border lines between areas popuated by the different ethnic groups are not clear. Therefore it is not possible to draw a border rightfully, without leaving any minorities on each side. In the treaty of Trianon however they drew the borders so, that practically only Hungarians became minorities e.g. in Romania, and no Romanians remained in Hungary. Why didn't they try to assign territories with Hungarian majority to Hungary and territories with Romanian majority to Romania leaving approximately equal minorities on both side? I think, this is what the Vienna Awards tried to compensate.
GyurIca: Köszi a linket! Én is hallottam-olvastam a nagy változásokról, és örültem nekik, bár sajnos nem tudtam ott lenni.
örülök, hogy rátaláltam erre a képedre! Szerencsére azóta a külcsín megváltozott a ház körül, az akarat is erős ott, csak sajnos a lehetőségek korlátozottak.
Kedvencem lett a képed!
like from ukraine
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Photo taken in Popoiu, Romania
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