The Acropolis of Athens is a rocky hill of 156 meters from the sea and 70 meters around the level of the city of Athens. The top of the trapezoid-shaped length of 300 m and a maximum width of 150 m. The hill is inaccessible from all sides except the west, where lies the fortified entrance, decorated with brightly Propylaea.
It was found that the hill was inhabited from the 3rd millennium BC. From the 6th century BC were built up in this holy of Athens, as Hekatompedon others, destroyed during the Persian wars.
The rebuilding of the walls and temples began immediately after the defeat of the Persians in 465 BC, the time of Pericles. Under the supervision of Phidias and the architects Mnesikles, Kallikrates and Callimachus were built and decorated the Parthenon, the Erechtheion, the Propylaea and the Temple of Athena Nike.
During the Roman period added some minor structures. During the Byzantine era, the Parthenon was converted into a Christian church. During the Frankish church was Catholic, and during the Ottoman mosque.
During the Ottoman period, the Acropolis suffered the most damage. The Turks were storing gunpowder on it and gave rise to destroy monuments. In 1645 a thunderbolt which fell onto the gunpowder blew the Propylaea. In 1687, when the Acropolis besieged the Venetian Morosini, one of the bombs fell on the gunpowder was stored in the Parthenon and the temple destroyed.
Extensive damage caused by the British Lord Elgin just before the Revolution of 1821. He can dismantle the Parthenon frieze, metopes, pediments, a Caryatid and a column of the Erechtheion, which moved to England. For all that he paid 35,000 pounds to the Turks and the Athenians gave a clock, erected in the ancient market. During the War of 1821 the Citadel was besieged in turn by Greeks and Turks, and suffered further damage. In 1834, archaeological work began to restore the monuments.