a quick take a tour in hierapolis.

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Pamukkale's terraces are made of travertine, a sedimentary rock deposited by water from the hot springs.

In this area, there are 17 hot water springs in which the temperature ranges from 35 °C (95 °F) to 100 °C (212 °F).[citation needed] The water that emerges from the spring is transported 320 metres (1,050 ft)[citation needed] to the head of the travertine terraces and deposits calcium carbonate on a section 60 to 70 metres (200 to 230 ft) long covering an expanse of 240 metres (790 ft) to 300 metres (980 ft). When the water, supersaturated with calcium carbonate, reaches the surface, carbon dioxide degasses from it, and calcium carbonate is deposited. The depositing continues until the carbon dioxide in the water balances the carbon dioxide in the air.[citation needed] Calcium carbonate is deposited by the water as a soft jelly,[citation needed] but this eventually hardens into travertine.

This reaction is affected by the weather conditions, ambient temperature, and the flow duration. Precipitation continues until the carbon dioxide in the thermal water reaches equilibrium with the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Measurements made at the source of the springs find atmospheric levels of 725 mg/l carbon dioxide, by the time this water flows across the travertines, this figure falls to 145 mg/l. Likewise calcium carbonate falls from 1200 mg/l to 400 mg/l and calcium 576.8 mg/l to 376.6 mg/l. From these results it is calculated that 499.9 mg of CaCO3 is deposited on the travertine for every liter of water. This means that for a flow rate of 1 ı/s of water 43191 grams are deposited daily. The average density of a travertine is 1.48 g/cm3 implying a deposit of 29.2 dm3. Given that the average flow of the water is 465.2 l/s this implies that it can whiten 13,584 square metres (146,220 sq ft) a day, but in practice this area coverage is difficult to attain. These theoretical calculations indicate that up to 4.9 square kilometres (1.9 sq mi) it can be covered with a white deposit of 1 millimetre (0.039 in) thickness.

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Comments (34)

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Chinappi on December 27, 2012

For me, this is a very interesting capture.

Of course, I LIKE it.

More generally, you have a beautiful gallery.

Happy New Year to you and your family!

See you soon… Best regards from Grasse, in France.


M.Salih ÖZBUDAK on December 29, 2012

Thanks a lot for your visit;

Bernard. REGARDS, Salih

Eliseo.mc on August 8, 2014

Salih: interesante vista de estas ruinas clásicas en el oeste turco.

LIKE 17.

Saludos de Eliseo.

M.Salih ÖZBUDAK on August 10, 2014

It is very kind manner to visit my pictures;



Jens ||¿Æ¬ŒΞЩ|| Germ… on August 11, 2014

An intresting historical place! LIKE My best wishes .---. Jens

M.Salih ÖZBUDAK on August 12, 2014

Thanks a lot so much for your visit and warm comment;



Alireza Javaheri on August 16, 2014

Beautiful photo - LK

Петар Бојић on August 23, 2014

Interesting histoical place, excellent photo!


Greetings, Petar

Ijaz Ahmad Mughal on November 16, 2014

Fantastic ancient architecture! Excellent shot! +++ LIKE & FAVORITE :))) .Best greetings from Ijaz Ahmad

krzymat10 on January 27, 2015

Piękne zdjęcie.


Pozdrowienia z Polski - Krzysztof

M.Salih ÖZBUDAK on January 27, 2015

Thanks a lot for your visit and warm comment;



albertLM on May 18, 2015

great shot!beautifully taken.




M.Salih ÖZBUDAK on May 18, 2015

Thank you Albert. GREETINGS.

Leoni Hussein on December 22, 2015

Arquitetura antiga, belíssima ! (L+F).

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Photo taken in 20190 Pamukkale/Denizli Merkez/Denizli, Turkey

Photo details

  • Uploaded on April 24, 2012
  • © All Rights Reserved
    by M.Salih ÖZBUDAK
    • Camera: Canon EOS 450D
    • Taken on 2012/03/25 17:05:49
    • Exposure: 0.002s (1/500)
    • Focal Length: 18.00mm
    • F/Stop: f/4.000
    • ISO Speed: ISO100
    • Exposure Bias: 0.33 EV
    • No flash