Grass snake, Couleuvre à collier, Culebra de collar, Zaskroniec zwyczajny, Ringelnatter, Ringslang (Natrix natrix)

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Grass snake, Couleuvre à collier, Culebra de collar, Zaskroniec zwyczajny, Ringelnatter, Ringslang (Natrix natrix)

Etymology

The name natrix is probably derived from the Latin nare or natare "to swim".

Description

Closeup of a 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) grass snake from Great Britain The grass snake is typically dark green or brown in colour with a characteristic yellow collar behind the head, which explains the alternative name ringed snake. The colour may also range from grey to black, with darker colours being more prevalent in colder regions, presumably owing to the thermal benefits of being dark in colour. The underside is whitish with irregular blocks of black, which are useful in recognizing individuals. In Great Britain, the grass snake is the largest reptile, reaching up to 190 centimetres (6 ft 3 in) total length, though such large specimens are rare. Females are considerably larger than males, typically reaching a size of 90–110 centimetres (2 ft 11 in–3 ft 7 in) when fully grown. Males are approximately 20 centimetres (8 in) shorter and significantly smaller in girth. Weight is about 240 grams (8 oz). Since the colour of its collar is often pale yellow to white in the Balkans region, the name for this snake in Serbian/Croatian language is belouška/bjelouška, which means white eared snake.

Distribution

This species is one of only three snakes to occur in Great Britain, and is distributed throughout lowland areas of England and Wales; it is almost absent from Scotland and is not found in Ireland, which has no native snakes. It is widely distributed in mainland Europe, ranging from mid Scandinavia to southern Italy. It is also found in Middle East and northwestern Africa. British grass snakes belong to the subspecies N. n. helvetica.

Ecology

Feeding

They prey almost entirely on amphibians, especially the common toad and the common frog, although they may also occasionally eat mammals and fish. Captive snakes have been observed taking earthworms offered by hand, but dead prey items are never taken. The snake will search actively for prey, often on the edges of water, using sight and sense of smell (using the Jacobson's organ). They consume prey live without using constriction.

Habitat

Grass snake hunting in early autumn, Sweden Grass snakes are strong swimmers and may be found close to fresh water, although there is evidence individual snakes often do not make use of water bodies throughout the entire season.

The preferred habitat appears to be open woodland and "edge" habitat, such as field margins and woodland borders, as these may offer adequate refuge while still affording ample opportunity for thermoregulation through basking. Pond edges are also favoured and the relatively high chance of observing this secretive species in such areas may account for their perceived association with ponds and water.

Grass snakes, as with most reptiles, are at the mercy of the thermal environment and need to overwinter in areas which are not subject to freezing. Thus, they typically spend the winter underground where the temperature is relatively stable.

Reproduction

As spring approaches, the males emerge first and spend much of the day basking in an effort to raise body temperature and thereby metabolism. This may be a tactic to maximise sperm production, as the males mate with the females as soon as they emerge up to two weeks later in April, or earlier if environmental temperatures are favourable. The leathery-skinned eggs are laid in batches of eight to 40 in June to July and hatch after about 10 weeks. To survive and hatch, the eggs require a temperature of at least 21 °C (70 °F), but preferably 28 °C (82 °F), with high humidity. Rotting vegetation, such as compost heaps, are preferred locations. The young are about 18 centimetres (7 in) long when they hatch and are immediately independent.

Migration

After breeding in summer, snakes tend to hunt and may range widely during this time, moving up to several hundred metres in a day.[2] Prey items tend to be large compared to the size of the snake, and this impairs the movement ability of the snake. Snakes which have recently eaten rarely move any significant distance and will stay in one location, basking to optimize their body temperature until the prey item has been digested. Individual snakes may only need two or three significant prey items throughout an entire season.

Ecdysis (moulting)

Ecdysis occurs at least once during the active season. As the outer skin wears and the snake grows, the skin loosens from the body, including from the eyes, which may turn a milky white colour at this time. This presumably affects the eyesight of the snakes and they do not move or hunt during this time. The outer skin is eventually sloughed in one piece (inside-out) and normal movement activity is resumed.

Defence

Playing dead, also in ecdysis

Not being venomous, the snake's only defence is to produce a garlic-smelling fluid from the anal glands, or to feign death (thanatosis) by becoming completely limp. They may also perform an aggressive display in defence, hissing and striking without actually opening the mouth. They rarely bite in defence. They may also secrete blood (autohaemorrhage) from the mouth and nose whilst playing dead.

Protection and threats

The species has various predator species, including corvids, storks, owls and perhaps other birds of prey, foxes and the domestic cat. In England, grass snakes are protected under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 and cannot be harmed or traded without a licence, although they may legally be captured and kept in captivity.

Two of the subspecies are considered critically endangered: N. n. cetti (Sardinian grass snake) and N. n. schweizeri. In 2007, the grass snake was included on the updated UK Biodiversity Action Plan as a species in need of conservation and greater protection

Source:wikipedia.org

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Comments (13)

bdeh on July 17, 2012

Wat gaaf dat je die ontdekte Erik. Prachtig gefotografeerd. MOOI! Groeten Berend

Chris10 © on July 17, 2012

Wat een grote slang zeg Erik. Ik denk dat ik, als ie in beweging kwam, op de loop zou gaan... Maar hij is wel heel erg mooi.

Groet, Christien.

Nadia Kushnir on July 17, 2012

WOW!!!!! Super-photo! LIKE! Best regards. Nadia.

cjlin on July 18, 2012

As we known, the grass snake is no poisoned, isn't it? Great shot. cjlin

Erik van den Ham on July 18, 2012

Hallo Berend en Chris10 als ik heel eerlijk moet zijn was het Laura die deze ontdekte en zag hoe die nog net het bos in kroop. Ik ben hem /haar achterna gegaan en zag hoe die wegkroop onder een omgevallen boom. Toen ik met de camera onder de boom door fotografeerde nam de slang een dreigende houding aan en was het gesis duidelijk hoorbaar. Als je niet bekend bent met de soort zou je er haast bang van worden. De slang zal vrijwel nooit over gaan tot een daadwerkelijke aanval (tenzij je een kikker, padof klein muisje bent die in z'n geheel naar binnen kunnen;-)

Hello Nadia and cjlin thanks for your kind comment the species is indeed not venomous (poisonous) and although it's making a hissing sound and takes on a defensive mode it almost never bites. That is unless your a frog or a toad.

Groeten, Regards, Erik

AnneliesMacro&More on July 19, 2012

Super dat je deze ringslang tegenkwam, fascinerend en mooi!

groeten, Annelies

Bengeltje on July 19, 2012

Prachtig licht op zijn kopje!!

like

Groeten,

Bengeltje

ANGEL, EL ALFA III on July 19, 2012

Preciosa foto, me gusta. Like. Saludos desde Madrid, España

Erik van den Ham on July 19, 2012

Blijf het ook altijd intrigerende beesten vinden Annelies en Bengeltje. Toch ben ik ook altijd wel een beetje bang voor ze, zeker als ze zoals deze ook deed in de aanslag houding gaan staan. Het ijzige gesis wat deze leit horen helpt dan zeker niet mee.

Muy amable, gracias Ángel por los agradables comentarios.

Groeten, Saludos, Erik

els f on July 20, 2012

mooi hoe die kop in het licht op de foto hebt gezet, misschien heb je de flitser gebruikt, maar het is een schitterend effect! like

K@rin on July 23, 2012

Oh daar is'tie dan, wel een HELE grote zo te zien , de langste die ik tot nu toe (levend) heb gezien was zo'n anderhalve meter , Prachtige foto , like, groetjes Karin

HAMANA on July 25, 2012

Great find, excellent photo!

Greetings from Michigan,

Doerthe

Erik van den Ham on July 25, 2012

Inderdaad de flits er bij Els deze zat zo weggekropen in een donker plekje dat was de enige oplossing.

Ook dit was een aardige jongen alhoewel ik niet precies durf te zeggen hoe lang die was.

Hello Doerthe what a beautiful and quite unusual name! (Is it a German name?). This one just was crawling away from us here. It thought to be save hiding here but the poor animal had a bad day. He wasn't to keen on me coming closer and taking pictures. The loud hissing and threatening moves he made made that very clear.

Groeten, Warm wishes from a sunny Holland, Erik

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Photo details

  • Uploaded on July 17, 2012
  • © All Rights Reserved
    by Erik van den Ham

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