The Fourth Presbyterian Church of Chicago was formed in February 1871 by the merger of Westminster Presbyterian Church and North Presbyterian Church.The combined congregation dedicated a new church building on Sunday, October 8, 1871. That was the same day as the beginning of the Great Chicago Fire, which destroyed the young congregation's new church building. The congregation subsequently built a second building, located at the corner of Rush Street and Superior Street, which was dedicated in February 1874. After nearly 40 years at that location, in 1912, the congregation decided to build a new building on Pine Street (now upper Michigan Avenue), which was then a fairly undeveloped part of the city. The congregation employed architect Ralph Adams Cram to build them a Gothic Revival building. Cram, who also designed the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York, was at work on both churches at the same time during 1912. Only Fourth Presbyterian was completed, however, and was dedicated in 1914. In contrast, St. John the Divine is still officially unfinished and is considered a work in progress. Cram designed and built the church for Fourth Presbyterian's congregation, but the parish house, cloister, manse, and garth were designed by Howard Van Doren Shaw. The church building is the oldest structure on Michigan Avenue, with the exception of the Chicago Water Tower, and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.