The Dome of the Rock is a shrine located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem.
It was initially completed in 691 CE at the order of Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik during the Second Fitna, now one of the oldest works of Islamic architecture.
The domed central plan structure was patterned after the Christian Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
The structure remains one of the clearest examples of Byzantine influence on early Islamic architecture.
The site's significance stems from religious traditions regarding the rock, known as the Foundation Stone, at its heart, which bears great significance for Jews, Christians and Muslims.
The Dome of the Rock is located at the visual center of a platform known as the Temple Mount.
It is believed, or assumed by tradition, to have been constructed on the site of the Second Jewish Temple, which was destroyed during the Roman Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE.
Muslims believe the location of the Dome of the Rock to be the site of the Islamic miracle of the Isra and Miraj. Caliph Omar ibn al Khattab (579-644) was advised by his associate, Ka'ab al-Ahbar, a Jewish rabbi who converted to Islam, that the Night Journey (Isra and Mi'raj), which is mentioned in the Quran and specified by the hadiths of being located in Jerusalem, took place at the site of the former Jewish Temples.
The Dome of the Rock is situated in the center of the Temple Mount, the site of the Jewish Second Temple.
The location is holy to Christians primarily because of the role the Temple played in the life of Jesus.
The Temple was destroyed in 70 CE by the Romans, who built a temple to Jupiter on the site.
During the Byzantine era, Jerusalem was primarily Christian, and pilgrims came by the tens of thousands to experience the places where Jesus walked.