The temple of Apollo, is an ancient temple in Ancient Corinth built with monolithic Doric columns. Of the 40 that existed, today only 7 survive standing in a prominent position above the ruins of the ancient agora. The temple was built in 530 BC about. To support the roof, interior columns were along quite large in size cella, which was divided into two rooms and also in the vestibule and opisthodomos were in front by the two columns in antis. The temple is a registered trademark of Corinth.
It was an important city-state of ancient Greece. Controlled an area corresponding to the east of the prefecture of Corinthia in the northeast of the Argolis. Bordered on the west Sikyon, Megara to the east, with Argos in the southwest and in south with Epidauros. Ancient Corinth controlled the key position of the isthmus and was the most important commercial hub of the ancient world, until to be threatened by Athens. Corinth was considered the richest city of the ancient world.
Ancient Corinth was inhabited from the Neolithic period (5000-3000 BC).
During the Bronze Age the cty was refered to many ancient myths like the myth of Sisyphus, the myth of Bellerophon, the myth of Jason and Medea, etc. Homer at the list of new states refers at Corinth to participate in the Trojan expedition under the leadership of King Agamemnon of Mycenae.
By installing the Dorians established the constitution of the aristocracy in Corinth, with an aristocratic ruling class of Dorians, Bacchiadae.
In the mid-seventh century BC the constitution of the aristocracy abolished and established Tyranny with the first Tyran who was Kypselos. In Kypselos succeeded by Periander (Periandros) featured one of the Seven Sages of the Archaic period.
During the Persian Wars, the Corinthians were the leading forces of the Greek alliance against Persia. Participated in the battle of Salamis, with 40 ships and the battle of Plataea with 5,000 soldiers. In the coming years Corinth developed intense commercial competition with Athens, which led to the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War. Corinth formed an alliance with Sparta and other countries in ancient Greece, against Athens, giving the alliance a powerful fleet, unique in ancient Greece who could face Athens.
After the Peloponnesian War, Corinth Civil War broke out between oligarchs and democrats. The prevalence of democratic turned Corinth allied to Athens, and Thebes. The new alliance fought with Sparta, the war he became known as the Corinthian War. This war ended in 386 BC the Antalcidean peace.
In 365 BC seized power, General Timoleon. The successive campaigns organized by Timoleon in Sicily to help the Corinthian colonies in the region and major trading bases against the threat of Carthaginian. In 336 BC Alexander the Great set up in Corinth, the alliance of Greek cities against the Persians. In the coming years the power of Corinth was limited and gradually overshadowed by the newly Achaean League. In 146 BC made an alliance with the Achaean confederacy in one last attempt of the Greeks to deal against the Roman general Lucius Mommios who marched to the Peloponnese. The Greeks defeated the Isthmus, followed by destruction of Corinth.
The city built again in 44 BC, and grows again in 51-52 AD visited by the Apostle Paul. The center is organized south of the temple of Apollo and included shops, small shrines, fountains, baths and other public buildings. In 267 AD, the invasion of the Heruli, begins the decline of the city, although it survives despite repeated invasions and destructions, until its liberation from the Turks in 1822.
COLONIES OF CORINTHOS:
The Corinthians as a major trading power had created a network of colonies mainly in the west to help them to control trade in these areas. In the Ionian islands were colonized Lefkada and Corfu and at the mainland coast of the Ionian colonies were established Aktion and Amvrakia. In the north Adriatic founded colonies Epidamnos and Apollonia. Both were present on the coast of Albania. Epidamnos during the Roman period became a very important Roman port and renamed by the Romans in Durres. In Sicily, the Corinthians founded Syracuse, which later evolved into powerful city of the island. Relations Corinth - Syracuse remained good and often the Corinthians offered assistance to Syracuse, when threatened by external enemies. With these colonies Corinth dominated trade in the Western Mediterranean. On the eastern side of Greece, the Corinthians founded many colonies there. The largest colony Potidaea was there. Potidaea was built in Halkidiki in very strategic position on the narrow isthmus at the beginning of Kassandra. After the Persian wars Potidaea came under the control of Athens. The juxtaposition of Corinth - Athens for control of Potidaea was one of the main causes for the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War.