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France has long coveted the heart of the South China Sea islands . 1885 will be accounted for as a colony in Vietnam , the French government had openly talked about " all of France is now owned by both Kofi Annan , the Paracel Islands also Angelica France all " and denied Chinese Qing government in 1909 declared sovereignty over the Paracel Islands . "I tired towards the country in the field since the merger was to be called before the Qing Qianlong and Jiaqing heyday - now that is becoming as strong Snapper , then the old territory dare forget it ." In early April 1933 , three French warships suddenly appeared in the waters of the Nansha islands in the industry , raised the French flag sent landing , also took a photo of the island 's fishermen . Hurriedly , Chinese fishermen Wang Anqing still holding the erhu . Front Islands , Frenchman planted a glass bottle containing a French instrument , but the night was王安庆, who dug throw. After about ten days , Wenchang County, Long Zheng Lan Louzhen Starlight Village fishermen arrived in the industry ingot Island, climb the tree to the French flag was loosed down. Wang Anqing later learned that during that time the French representing several South China Sea islands : Since 1933 April 7 to 13 , the French director of the Institute of Marine Xue Freund Saigon with warships and tracking ship , boarded Taiping Island , islands in the industry , the West in 1930 on the island ...... count occupied East Shanan Wei island of nine islands and reefs , is "nine islands incident ." France has long coveted the heart of the South China Sea islands . 1885 will be accounted for as a colony in Vietnam , and later , the French government had openly talked about " the early Annan ordered Wang Ming Wang Lung the 19th century , had a history of the expedition Xisha , both now owned by France Annan all , the Paracel Islands also Angelica all French ." and denied Chinese Qing government in 1909 declared sovereignty over the Paracel Islands : "This is only the occupation force 's performance has never been officially recognized, if you want to take effect in law , can only assume that at the time was no Paracel the main land . " ( March 1930 , the French Indochina French colonial governor in Hanoi induced Ministry of letters) In this regard, the ROC envoy in France in September 1932 note to the French Foreign Ministry stressed that " under international law and customary law , with an island far from the mainland is the first of the main conditions for effective occupation , in other words , there is a national first settlement, making it the country have these territories. Hainan fishermen settled in the Paracel Islands , and the construction of houses and boats for their needs , since ancient times is the case . " Meddle Xisha no legal basis , the French turn shift attention to the Spratly Islands . July 19, 1933 , released on the French occupation of the island of Nansha nine notices , but admitted that one of two islands " have to live with Chinese fishermen ." U -shaped prototype intermittent line When nine Nansha islands occupied , sustained more than a month of bloody days of the Great Wall , is becoming the focus of attention of the whole country . Publish notices until after the French side , the government of the Republic of internal and external problems only on August 4th Directive Foreign Ministry note the French side : "The Chinese government is determined to identify in previously untreated , the occupation of the Declaration of the French Government , to retain their rights ." Subsequent Chinese ED French government protest : " ( France ) have both called for Chinese people living in Qiongya the islands to specifically fisheries, also said that there was Chinese island living , and which claims to have put up the leaves of the house, God has enshrined the nine islands like ...... Chinese who already live , not without the main island , on behalf of the legal person has to prove carry me . " Also, in accordance with international law and practice, "Where the newly discovered islands , whose inhabitants Department何国民that prove its sovereignty belongs to any country , today the islands are all Chinese, its sovereignty should belong to me, since no room to argue for the men ! " Absurd , the Japanese government has lodged a protest to the French , because when the April 10, 1933 aboard the French Pacific island , days quotient also be expelled , Japan believes that France violated its sovereignty. Meanwhile, the government of the Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs also asked France to identify the latitude and longitude of each island and see the name of the complex . French Foreign Ministry responded that " the nine islands between Annan , the Philippines , are in the rock , when the strategic route , with its steep , this method usually ship in distress , the occupation , the construction of anti- insurance device to make , and the plot Description indeed irrelevant to the Paracel Islands . " Faced with such a situation , the necessity of the Government of the Republic deeply detailed map published by the South China Sea territory , decided to set up a " amphibious Map Review Committee " within the boundaries of the various islands and reefs in the English place names unified approval. In the January 1935 journal published the first phase , a more detailed list of the names of 132 South China Sea islands , reefs , beaches . And for the first time explicitly into the South China Sea islands Dongsha Islands ( now the Dongsha Islands ) , Xisha , Nansha Islands ( now the sand islands ) and the group Dongsha Islands ( Nansha Islands today ) . April 1935 , the Republic of the Navy Hydrographic Office after completion of field measurements , water and land map Review Committee journal devoted to draw the second phase , " the South China Sea islands map" to determine the boundaries of the South China Sea, the southern-most line to latitude 4 °, the mother had shoal marked lines within the territory . In 1936, revenue from this map is browed early geographers editor of the " Chinese building a new map" and another called " China 's territorial seas full image after the South Exhibition" , the figure in the South China Sea territory marked the Dongsha Islands , the Xisha Islands, Spratly Islands and the Mission of sand , with countries around the boundaries marked to show the South China Sea islands belong to Chinese territory , and confirmed that the most southern latitude 4 ° boundaries and sovereignty of Zengmuansha again . This is the first appeared on Chinese maps line the South China Sea territory , namely the South China Sea on the map today, U -shaped discontinuous line shape. South China Sea Branch of State Oceanic Administration Xu Zhiliang , director of the Policy Research believes that the 1927 version of the map inherits Tusi Cong "Chinese waters transition diagram " in the territorial seas of state boundaries of painting , the Dongsha Islands , Paracel Islands and Spratly Islands in the whole circumference of sand up, plotting the first full line borders the South China Sea . Since then, the Chinese government and map publishing industry have followed this painting . Early Republic heat chart Deputy director of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Borderland History and Geography Research Center, said Li Guoqiang , before the U -shaped line appears intermittently , Chinese ancient China Sea boundary line is no uniform method of painting, and the South China Sea territorial waters of modern surveying , began in the Qing government in 1909 Xisha sovereignty declared . May 19, 1909 , three flying the flag of the Qing Long Muke gunboat , entering " or as pale blue or emerald color as " the South China Sea , went straight to the Paracel Islands . Consisting of Guangdong Admiral Lee Jun led the fleet , with the one up to over 170 investigation team, including officials, businessmen , surveyors , laboratory technicians, engineers, doctors , all kinds of workers. Except declaration of sovereignty , to 15 Xisha islands named , but Lee Jun also used in Guangzhou and Tianjin before sailing purchased Inch ranging tape , marine locator, theodolite and other equipment, Xisha, Dongsha , Nansha Islands were measured at three and inspection, to obtain a more detailed chart . In this chart , based on the map scientist Hu Jin then , Cheng Kai deposited in 1912 published "Republic border and coastal area zoning map ", the boundary line drawn South China Sea . Early Republic , territory and geographical names Administrative Region fluctuation evolution evolution geography and mapping derived therefrom suddenly hot , then only about the history of the South China Sea islands included in the map of China's territory , it has published more than sixty versions , University of Cape high school geography and mapping design disciplines, from geology to the same period of Western technology , oceanography far left behind . Behind this is the territory of modern China were powers swallow like a whale , border issues and national peril entangled interwoven helpless. Therefore , frequent changes of the boundary line , has become a hot intellectual concerns. As Mr. Hu Jinjie map handwritten preface: " My Country since the field was tired towards the merger, to be called before the Qing Qianlong and Jiaqing heyday - now that is becoming as strong Snapper , then the old territory dare forget it . " The duo painted Hu Cheng another data source map is Qing map data , the heyday of the Qing Dynasty to the early Republican " Change trend chart waters ", where there has been through the Tsushima Strait from the Sea of ​​Japan , Okinawa , eastern Taiwan , Bashi Channel , southern South China Sea into the Indian Ocean all the way to the Straits of Malacca , to a continuous line in Myanmar waters of the southern port . Following Hu Cheng , in May 1927 , the Republic of China , another scientist Tusi Cong map published " China latest situation map ", where the seventh picture shows the "Chinese border transition diagram ." This boundary line in the chart labeled : from Fangcheng has been along the northern Gulf , the more the middle line to the south , in the south of the pocket over the Paracel Islands in the sand , northeastward through the eastern Taiwan Strait has been extended to the East China Sea and Yellow Sea the Yalu River mouth . Beyond the boundaries of the line , the Chinese government has taken note of the legal protection of the territory . June 24, 1931 , the national government to resist the invasion of the Western powers at sea , issued the " three sea miles territorial waters of order" , was officially announced that China adopted the international community has generally accepted three -mile territorial sea width of the system , thus ending China over the years have not breadth of the territorial provisions of history . This is the beginning of the Republic territorial sea regime. " At the same time it is also a sense of the impact of government officials and scientists map the boundaries of the field of view of the sea ." ( Xu Zhiliang , " the territory of the Republic of evolution and the South China Sea waters intermittent formation of national boundaries ." ) Renewed controversy Although the government of the Republic at the mapping level, the legal level of interest in the maintenance of the South China Sea have made unremitting efforts , but the effect is the end result of the war period and discounted in the country . Nine Nansha Island incident , the government of the Republic between France and repeatedly refuted negotiations, always to no avail. December 1933 , France in Cochinchina Governor Claudio Taymor signed a decree , the Spratly Islands These islands "merged" into Annan's Ba Province. 1935 to 1938 , Japan also sent warships occupied the Spratly Islands . March 1, 1939 , Japan will Xisha , Nansha Islands together accounted go to " New Southern Islands " , then under the Japanese occupation of Taiwan, Kaohsiung City , Kaohsiung state . Until after the war, the Chinese government recovered in accordance with the "Cairo Declaration " provides Taiwan , South China Sea islands and then recaptured in December 1946 , and the following year mapping out of the South China Sea islands map , the name of one of the four major islands marked , has been with today, exactly the same map . But Nansha sovereign crisis is not yet completely resolved, returning to France in Indochina , there are still attempts to enter the Spratly Islands . When the Japanese surrendered still awaiting repatriation, France on time before the Chinese troops stationed in the South China Sea islands occupied by a number , and often sent warships to patrol in the South China Sea . October 1946 , the French warship " Qiefulude " was invaded Spratly Islands and Taiping Island, South Island and the monument erected in Taiping Island . National Government decided to recover the Xisha , Nansha Islands , France also protested and sent warships " Tokyo " was the Paracel Islands , discovered the island when Hangzhi Yongxing Island Chinese troops stationed there , then diverted to Coral Island and Island the establishment of an administrative center. The Philippines has just gained independence , but also to catch when the Xisha in Chinese , Nansha Islands are not fully received start. Quirino Philippines when he was foreign minister on July 23, 1946 stated: " China has been due to the occurrence of the ownership of the Spratly Islands dispute with the Philippines , the islands in 200 sea miles west of Palawan , the Philippines intends to merge within the scope of the defense . " Border line and sea power Nansha sovereignty disputes, but also the "war" between China and the Soviet Union , India and other countries finds more than one from the border dispute . To this end , the Government of the Republic Ministry of the Interior Ministry of the Interior Fangyu Division in July 18, 1946 , Fudan University, Department of Geography Professor Fu corner now as Secretary . Fangyu Division is responsible for measuring exploration Chinese border , handling border disputes, administrative division adjustment investigation matters , the establishment of the South China Sea islands to recover after the first planning matters , while the South China Sea islands each island group name has been adjusted in accordance with the islands located location, the "Mission sand Islands " was renamed " Nansha Islands " , the original " Nansha Islands " was renamed " sand islands ." Another important task completed Fangyu Division , is printed " South Sea Islands Location Map ." The figure marked in the South China Sea Dongsha Islands , Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands and the sand , and in its surrounding U -shaped line demarcated by a line consisting of 11 intermittent , later changed to 10 , including the South China Sea 9 , the East China Sea between Taiwan and the Ryukyu Islands, a . This ring holding the Dongsha Islands , Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands and the sand of the U-shaped state boundaries , marked the southernmost latitude 4 ° near the James Shoal . This is the official map of the South China Sea on the U-shaped mark intermittent line, is known as "traditional territory the line ," Chinese territory of the South China Sea are thus specific. When Fangyu Secretary outlined the boundaries of the South China Sea , the world's ideas are drastic changes in sea power . Not long ago, the United States relies on "World War II " in the rapid development of the marine survey technology , discovered in 1945 in the Gulf of Mexico coast in Texas distribution " shelf " and seabed oil . In the same year on September 28 , when many countries in the world still do not know " continental shelf " what time , U.S. President Truman issued a " shelf announcement " in favor of the United States " on the adjacent its lower coastal seas underground and seabed of the continental shelf of natural resources has jurisdiction ownership and control . " ( United States ' Shelf Notice " ) . Because the U.S. continental shelf width for the country two oceans , most natural extension between 200 sea miles to 300 miles, while the Pacific coast of South America and some countries in the Caribbean and the United States , bordering the ocean , but do not have the same width of the continental shelf , marine rights and interests inevitably suffered. For this reason, these countries "created" an American " continental shelf width " broadly similar concept , that is, 200 -mile territorial sea rights . Two months later . Mexico announced its territorial waters within 183 m isobath , and later in Argentina , Chile, Peru , Costa Rica , El Salvador and other countries have confirmed more than 200 -mile territorial sea rights . " Kau line" stereotypes At this point in China , insufficient investigation of marine technology , I do not know " continental shelf claims ," which will bring benefits and consequences . Just hydrographic surveying and reefs , apparently unable to publish " the South China Sea Continental Shelf Notice " in accordance with the United States ' continental shelf Notice "logic and technical specifications , the same can not be in accordance with the caliber of South American countries , made ​​200 sea miles territorial sea rights advocates , so the territory can only be published vesting administrative jurisdiction and publish the name of table form reefs provide intermittent basis in international law for the South China Sea, state boundaries recognized by the international community . February 1948 , the ROC Ministry of the Interior public offering "Republic of administrative regions map" to the international community the Chinese government officially announced the sovereignty and jurisdiction of the South China Sea islands and their adjacent waters . On state boundaries with intermittent expressed " full consideration of the ocean and South Pacific connectivity features traffic arteries ." ( Xu Sen , " the South China Sea intermittent connotation country boundaries ." ) Since then, the People's Republic of China government approval published in the " South China Sea islands map" and the " People's Republic of China map" , also plotted the South China Sea intermittent border , just 11 in 1953 to remove the broken line segment North Bay, Tokyo Bay paragraph 2 , section 9 to intermittent lines, geographically slight adjustments. This is commonly known as " nine out of line " in contemporary China Sea boundary line. But the South China Sea sovereignty dispute yet on this corpuscles. 1951 , " the San Francisco Peace Treaty" , in the final drafting stage suddenly overturned all previous authorization of Chinese sovereignty over the South China Sea , Japan renounces all rights to write only to the Xisha and Nansha Islands , but did not specify their return to China . Under the bane of this : Before World War II disputes between China and Southeast Asia colonial power Japan, France , and thus change the dispute between China and the newly independent Southeast Asian neighbors into World War II, until now . 法国对南海诸岛早有觊觎之心。1885年将越南占为殖民地,法国政府就曾公开谈到“现安南既归法国所有,则西沙群岛亦当归法国所有”,否认中国前清政府在1909年对西沙群岛的主权宣示。 “吾国领域经累朝合并以来,至前清乾嘉以前可称全盛时代——今即渐为强者攫夺,然旧时领地何敢忘也。” 1933年4月上旬,三艘法国军舰忽然出现在南沙中业岛海域,派人登岛升起了法国国旗,还拉着岛上渔民在旗下合影。仓促间,中国渔民王安庆手里还拿着二胡。 离岛前,法国人埋下了一个装有法文文书的玻璃瓶,不过当晚就被王安庆等人挖出来扔了。大约十天后,文昌县龙楼镇星光村渔民郑兰锭来到中业岛,爬上树把法国国旗也解了下来。 王安庆后来才知道,那段时间法国人占了南海好几个岛:自1933年4月7日至13日,法国西贡海洋研究所所长薛弗氏带着军舰和测量船,登上太平岛、中业岛、西月岛……算上1930年占领的东沙南威岛,共九座岛礁,是为“九小岛事件”。 法国对南海诸岛早有觊觎之心。1885年将越南占为殖民地,尔后,法国政府就曾公开谈到“19世纪初期安南嘉隆王与明命王时,均曾出征西沙,现安南既归法国所有,则西沙群岛亦当归法国所有”,并否认中国前清政府在1909年对西沙群岛的主权宣示:“这种占领仅是武力的表现,从未得到正式的承认,如果要在法律上生效,只能假设西沙群岛在当时是无主地。”(1930年3月,驻河内法国印支总督致法国殖民部信件) 对此,中华民国驻法国公使于1932年9月照会法国外交部强调,“根据国际法和习惯法,拥有远离大陆的一个岛屿的主要条件是最先的有效占领,换言之,是国民最先在那里定居,从而使其国家拥有这些领土。海南渔民在西沙群岛定居,并建造房屋和渔船以供其需要,自古以来就是如此。” 染指西沙于法无据,法国又将目光转移到了南沙群岛。 1933年7月19日,法国发布对南沙九岛的占领告示,但同时承认其中二岛“已住有中国渔民”。 U形断续线雏形 南沙九岛被占时,持续一个多月的中日长城血战,正成为举国上下关注的焦点。直到法方发布告示后,内忧外患中的民国政府才于8月4日指令外交部照会法方:“中国政府在未经确定查明以前,对于法国政府占领之宣言,保留其权利。” 其后中国又向法国政府抗议:“(法方)既称有琼崖的中国人住于该群岛以专渔业,又谓当时岛中住有华人,又谓其地有树叶搭盖之屋,有奉祀神人之像……是九岛者早有华人居住,并非无主之岛,法人已代我证明矣。” 并且,依照国际公法与惯例,“凡新发现之岛屿,其住民系何国民,即证明其主权属于何国,今该群岛中全为华人,其主权应属于我,自无置辩之余地矣!” 荒唐的是,日本政府也向法国提出了抗议,因1933年4月10日法军登上太平岛时,连日商也一并驱逐了,日本认为法方侵犯了其主权。 与此同时,民国政府外交部还要求法方将各岛名称及经纬度查明见复。法国外交部回复称“该九岛在安南、菲律宾间,均系岩石,当航路之要道,以其险峻,法船常于此遇险,故占领之,以使建设防险设备,并出图说明,实与西沙群岛毫不相关。” 面对如此局势,民国政府深感出版中国南海疆域详细地图的必要性,决定成立“水陆地图审查委员会”,对疆域内各岛礁的中英文地名统一进行审定。在1935年1月编印的第一期会刊上,较详细地罗列了南海的132个岛、礁、滩的名称。并第一次将南海诸岛明确地分成东沙群岛(即今东沙群岛)、西沙群岛、南沙群岛(今中沙群岛)和团沙群岛(今南沙群岛)。 1935年4月,民国海军海道测量局完成实地测量后,水陆地图审查委员会会刊第二期专门绘制《中国南海各岛屿图》,确定了中国南海最南疆域线至北纬4°,把曾母暗沙标在了疆域线之内。 1936年,这幅地图被收入由地理学者白眉初主编的《中华建设新图》,另名为《海疆南展后之中国全图》,图中在南海疆域内标有东沙群岛、西沙群岛、南沙群岛和团沙群岛,其周围用国界线标明,以示南海诸岛同属中国版图,并再次确认北纬4°最南国界线及对曾母暗沙的主权。这就是中国地图上最早出现的南海疆域线,也即今日中国南海地图上U形断续线的雏形。 国家海洋局南海分局政策研究室主任徐志良认为,该版地图继承了1927年屠思聪《中华海疆变迁图》中的海疆国界线画法,将东沙群岛、西沙群岛、中沙群岛和南沙群岛全围了起来,首次完整标绘了中国南海疆界线。自此以后,中国政府和地图出版界都沿用了这种画法。 民初海图热 中国社科院边疆史地研究中心副主任李国强说,在U形断续线出现前,中国历代南海疆界线并无统一画法,而近代南海海疆勘测,则始于前清政府1909年西沙主权宣示。 1909年5月19日,三艘飘扬着大清龙旗的木壳炮舰,驶入“或作苍蓝或作翡翠色”的南海,直奔西沙群岛。这支由广东水师提督李准率领的舰队,带了一支多达一百七十多人的考察队伍,包括官员、商人、测绘员、化验员、工程师、医生、各种工人等。 除宣示主权、给西沙15个岛屿命名外,李准还利用出航前在广州和天津购得的英制测距皮尺、海上定位器、经纬仪等设备,对西沙、东沙、南沙三处群岛进行了测量和考察,获得了一份较详尽的海图。 在这份海图基础上,地图学家胡晋接、程敷锴在1912年出版的《中华民国边界海岸及面积区划图》中,绘出了南海疆界线。 民国初年,疆域政区消长和古今地名演变的沿革地理学,以及由此派生的地图测绘忽然大热,当时仅有关南海诸岛归入中国版图的历史地图,就出版了六十多个版本,中学大学普设地理及地图测绘学科,把同期源于西方科技的地质学、海洋学远远抛在了后面。 这背后是近代中国疆域遭列强蚕食鲸吞、边疆问题与民族危亡纠缠交织的无奈。因此,变动频繁的边界线,便成为知识分子关切的热点。正如胡晋接先生在地图手书序言中说:“吾国领域经累朝合并以来,至前清乾嘉以前可称全盛时代——今即渐为强者攫夺,然旧时领地何敢忘也。” 而胡程二人所绘地图的另一个资料来源,就是前清舆图资料、满清全盛时期至民国初年的《海疆变迁大势图》,这里出现了从日本海穿过对马海峡、冲绳、台湾东部、巴士海峡、南海南部一直到马六甲海峡进入印度洋,再到缅甸南部港口的一条连续海疆线。 继胡程之后,1927年5月,民国时期另一位地图学家屠思聪出版了《中华最新形势图》,其中第七图为《中华疆界变迁图》。这张图里的疆界线标示为:从广西防城一直沿北部湾中、越中间线往南,在西沙群岛南部兜过中沙群岛,东北向一直穿过台湾海峡东部,延伸到东海及黄海的鸭绿江口。 疆界线之外,中国政府也注意到了对领土的法理保护。1931年6月24日,国民政府为抵御西方列强的海上入侵,颁布“领海范围3海里令”,正式宣布中国采用当时国际社会已普遍认可的3海里领海宽度制度,从而结束了中国多年来没有规定领海宽度的历史。这是中华民国领海制度的开始。“同时它也在一定意义上影响了政府官员和地图学家们对海上疆域的视野。”(徐志良,《民国海疆版图演变与南海断续国界线的形成》) 再起争议 尽管民国政府在地图测绘层面、法理层面对维护南海权益进行了不懈努力,但效果终因处于国家战乱时期而打了折扣。南沙九岛事件中,民国政府与法国之间反复地驳斥交涉,始终没有结果。1933年12月,法国驻交趾支那总督克劳泰默签署法令,把南沙群岛的这些小岛“合并”到了安南的巴地省。 1935年到1938年间,日本又派军舰占领了南沙群岛。1939年3月1日,日本将西沙、南沙群岛一并占去改为“新南群岛”,隶属当时日本占领的台湾高雄州高雄市。直至抗战胜利后,中国政府根据《开罗宣言》规定收复台湾、进而在1946年12月收复南海诸岛,并于次年测绘出了南海诸岛地图,其中所标示的四大群岛名称,已与今天地图完全一致。 但南沙主权危机仍未彻底解决,重返印度支那的法国,仍有进军南沙群岛的企图。当投降日军尚在等候遣返时,法国就赶在中国部队进驻之前占领了南海若干岛屿,并经常派军舰在南海巡逻。 1946年10月,法国军舰“切弗鲁德”号侵占南沙群岛的南威岛和太平岛,并在太平岛竖立石碑。对国民政府决定收复西沙、南沙群岛,法国还提出抗议,并派军舰“东京”号到西沙群岛,航至永兴岛时发现岛上已有中国军队驻守,于是改航至珊瑚岛,并在岛上设立了行政中心。 刚取得独立的菲律宾,也想赶在中国未完全接收西沙、南沙群岛之时下手。时任菲律宾外长季里诺于1946年7月23日声称:“中国已因南沙群岛之所有权与菲律宾发生争议,该群岛在巴拉望岛以西200海里,菲律宾拟将其合并于国防范围之内。” 疆线与海权 南沙主权纷争,也是“二战”后中国与苏联、印度等国间多起边界认定争议之一。为此,民国政府内政部于1946年7月18日设立内政部方域司,复旦大学地理系教授傅角今担任司长。 方域司负责测量勘查中国疆界、处理疆界纠纷、调整勘测行政区域划分等事宜,成立后即首先筹划收复南海诸岛事宜,同时对南海诸岛各岛群名称作了调整,按照诸岛所处地理位置,将“团沙群岛”改名“南沙群岛”、原“南沙群岛”改名“中沙群岛”。 方域司完成的另一件要务,是印制了《南海诸岛位置图》。该图在南海海域中标有东沙群岛、西沙群岛、中沙群岛和南沙群岛,并在其四周标定了一条由11根断续线组成的U形线,后改为10条,其中南海9条,东海台湾与琉球群岛之间一条。 此环抱着东沙群岛、西沙群岛、中沙群岛和南沙群岛的U形国界线,最南端标在北纬4°曾母暗沙附近。这就是在中国南海地图上正式标出的U形断续线,被通称为“传统疆域线”,中国南海领土范围也由此具体化了。 方域司勾画南海疆界时,世界海权理念也在急剧变化。不久前,美国依靠“二战”中快速发展的海洋勘察技术,于1945年在墨西哥湾发现了分布在得克萨斯州沿海“大陆架”和海床中的石油。同年9月28日,当世界许多国家都还不知“大陆架”为何物时,美国总统杜鲁门就发表了《大陆架公告》,主张美国“对邻接其海岸公海下大陆架地底和海床的天然资源拥有管辖权和控制权”。(美国《大陆架公告》)。 由于美国面向两洋的大陆架宽度,大多自然延伸200海里到300海里之间,而南美一些在南太平洋海岸的国家,在加勒比海地区与美国海洋接壤、却又没有同样宽度大陆架的国家,海洋权益势必因此受损。为此,这些国家“创造”了一个与美国“大陆架宽度”大体相似的概念,即200海里领海权。 两个月后。墨西哥宣布其领海在183米等深线以内,尔后阿根廷、智利、秘鲁、哥斯达黎加、萨尔瓦多等国相继确认了200海里领海权。 “九段线”定型 此时的中国,海洋技术勘测不足,也不知“大陆架主张”会带来哪些权益和后果。只是水道测量和岛礁勘测,显然无法按照美国《大陆架公告》的逻辑和技术规范发布《南海大陆架公告》,同样也不能按照南美国家口径,提出200海里领海权主张,于是只能以公开出版版图、归属行政管辖和发布岛礁名称对照表等形式,为南海断续国界线获得国际社会的承认提供国际法依据。 1948年2月,中华民国内政部公开发行《中华民国行政区域图》,向国际社会正式宣布了中国政府对南海诸岛及其附近海域的主权和管辖权范围。其上用断续国界线来表示,“充分考虑了海洋的连通性和南海是太平洋交通要道的特点。”(许森安《南海断续国界线的内涵》) 此后,中华人民共和国政府审定出版的《南海诸岛图》和《中华人民共和国全图》,也同样标绘了南海断续国境线,只是在1953年将11段断续线去掉北部湾、东京湾2段,改为9段断续线,地理位置上稍有调整。这就是俗称“九段线”的当代中国南海疆界线。 但南海主权之争仍未就此消停。1951年的《旧金山对日和约》,在最后草拟阶段忽然推翻了以往对中国南海主权的所有认定,仅写日本放弃对西沙和南沙群岛的一切权利,却没有明确指出将其归还中国。祸根由此种下:二战前中国与东南亚殖民宗主国日本、法国之间的争议,由此转变成了二战后中国与新独立的东南亚邻国之间的争议,直至现在。


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