The Welsh language developed from the Brythonic languages spoken throughout southern Britain in the centuries before the Anglo-Saxon invasions which led to the creation of England. Many placenames in England, particularly of natural features such as rivers and hills, derive directly from this proto-Welsh language. Obvious examples are the numerous rivers named Avon, from the Welsh afon ("river"), and placenames such as Penrith. The Cornish language is closely related to Welsh, and many placenames in Cornwall (and to a lesser extent neighbouring Devon, Somerset and Dorset) therefore have similar origins to names in Wales. This is also true of Cumbria, where there are numerous examples of Brythonic placenames.
Welsh and Cornish remain living languages, spoken as a first language by many in the countries, and it is important to recognise that, like all languages, it has changed over time and continues to do so, for instance by accepting loan words from other languages such as Latin and English. The Welsh or Cornish language itself has many characteristics which are unfamiliar to most speakers of English, and can make it difficult to understand. For example, it uses a number of mutations in different circumstances, so that, depending on how they are placed in relation to other words, initial consonants of words may change. In relation to place names, for example, this means that a church (llan) dedicated to Mary (Mair) becomes Llanfair, the initial m of Mair changing to f. Other changes can apply to internal vowels. There are also differences between Welsh and English in how some letters are pronounced, and this has affected how placenames are spelled in the two languages. For instance, a single f in Welsh is always pronounced "v", while ff is pronounced "f"; thus, the Welsh word for river, afon, is pronounced with a "v" sound.
Chapel Carn Brea Grid ref. SW385280.
The 'most westerly hill in Britain'. It is an outstanding landmark dominating the surrounding countryside. From its summit, some 657 feet above sea level it is possible to overlook St. Just to the north, Sennen and Lands End to the west and Mounts Bay to the southeast. There is a ruined Bronze Age Chambered Barrow at the summit as well as the former site of a medieval chapel. A fire beacon is lit here every Midsummer's eve. The hill lies at the western end of Bartinney Downs near the Land's End Aerodrome just northwest of the hamlet of Crows-an-Wra. Shouldn't be confused with Carn Brea hill overlooking the Camborne-Redruth area. Stolen by the National Trust since May 1971. There is a car park here...
The Longships Lighthouse and the Mary James Ore carrying vessel. The Lighthouse stands on Carn Bras, the highest islet which rises 12 metres (39 ft) above high water level. The original tower was built in 1795 to the design of Trinity House architect Samuel Wyatt. The lantern was 24 metres (79 ft) above sea level but very high seas obscured its light.
In 1869 Trinity House began constructing a replacement. The building of the present granite tower used much of the equipment that had previously been used in the construction of the Wolf Rock Lighthouse. The tower was first lit in December 1873 having cost £43,870 to build. Even after these improvements, the S.S. Bluejacket was wrecked on rocks near the lighthouse on a clear night in 1898, nearly demolishing the lighthouse in the process.
Since 1988, the lighthouse has been unmanned. Its light has a range of 11 nautical miles (20 km), and gives one long five-second flash every ten seconds. The flashes are white when seen from seaward, but red sectors show if a vessel strays too close to either Cape Cornwall to the north or Gwennap Head to the south-southeast. A fog signal sounds every ten seconds. Shipwrecks
he Go-Go’s are an all-female American rock band formed in 1978. They made history as the first all-female band that both wrote their own songs and played their own instruments to top the Billboard album charts.
The Go-Go's rose to fame during the early 1980s. Their debut album, Beauty and the Beat, is considered one of the "cornerstone albums of new wave" (Allmusic), breaking barriers and paving the way for a host of other new American acts. When the album was released, it steadily climbed the Billboard 200 chart, ultimately reaching number one, where it remained for six consecutive weeks. The L.P. sold in excess of three million copies and reached triple platinum status, making it one of the most successful debut albums ever. The Go-Go's have sold more than seven million albums.
White horses (which are rarer than other colours of horse) have a special significance in the mythologies of cultures around the world. They are often associated with the sun chariot, with warrior-heroes, with fertility (in both mare and stallion manifestations), or with an end-of-time saviour, but other interpretations exist as well. Both truly white horses and the more common grey horses, with completely white hair coats, were identified as "white" by various religious and cultural traditions.
In Celtic mythology, Rhiannon, a mythic figure in the Mabinogion collection of legends, rides a "pale-white" horse. Because of this, she has been linked to the Romano-Celtic fertility horse goddess Epona and other instances of the veneration of horses in early Indo-European culture.
White horses are the most common type of ritual hill figure in Britain. Though some are modern, the Uffington White Horse at least dates back to the Bronze Age.
In Scottish folklore, the kelpie or each uisge, a deadly supernatural water demon in the shape of a horse, is sometimes described as white, though other stories say it is black
29TH MARCH 1967 The crew of the Liberian-registered Torrey Canyon were rescued by helicopters and lifeboats although the captain and three of his crew initially stayed on board.
In the weeks that followed the accident, oil escaped and spread along the shores of the south coast of Cornwall, Britain and the Normandy coast of France.
Worst hit were the Cornish beaches of Marazion and Prah Sands, where sludge was up to a foot deep. Up to 70 miles (113km) of beaches were seriously contaminated.
More than 20,000 sea birds were contaminated by the oil as a result of the disaster.
Maurice Foley, Under Secretary for the Navy, said that it was the biggest problem of its kind ever faced by any nation and announced the Government would spend £500,000 on the south-west,Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly.
The vessel was bombed for two days until it finally sank on 30 March 1967 and the oil slick was eventually dispersed by favourable weather.
The Minack Theatre is an open-air theatre, constructed above a gully with a rocky granite outcrop jutting into the sea (minack from Cornish meynek means a stony or rocky place).
Gwaryjy Minack in Cornish. The theatre is the outcome of an opportunistic activity undertaken gradually by Rowena Cade who owned the adjoining property and Charles Angove who was employed by Rowena Cade. In 1929, a local village group of players had staged Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream in the rocky meadow prior to it being landscaped by Charles Angove, repeating the production the next year. They decided that their next production would be The Tempest and Miss Cade joined them in their ambition by allowing full access to her land next to the rocky meadow. Miss Cade and Mr Angove made a terrace and rough seating, hauling materials down from the house or up via the winding path from the beach below. In 1932, The Tempest was performed with the sea as a dramatic backdrop, to great success. Miss Cade offered to improve the theatre, over the course of the winter months each year throughout her life with Billy Rawlings and Charles Angove so that others might perform each summer.
In 1944, the theatre was used as a location for the Gainsborough Studios film Love Story, starring Stewart Granger and Margaret Lockwood but inclement weather forced them to retreat to a studio mock-up. In 1955, the first dressing rooms were built. Since 1976 the theatre has been registered as a Charitable Trust and is now run by a local management team. Rowena Cade died on 29 March 1983, at the age of 89.
Nowadays, the theatre is used from June to September for a full summer season of 17 plays, produced by companies from all over the UK and visiting companies from the USA. The theatre is open for visitors throughout the rest of the year. The 75th Anniversary of Minack was celebrated with a production of The Tempest in August 2007.There has yet to be a Cornish Play performed in Cornish Language which would make a fine dedication to the hard work of Charles Angove.
Another long-running mystery in Cornwalls natural history has been the origin of our so-called 'Lusitanian' species - plants and animals living far from their natural home in the region of Spain and the Pyrenees that the Romans called Lusitania. Best known are the natterjack toads that roam the sand-dunes; certain Slugs as well as several kinds of heather from Spain and Portugal that grow elsewhere along the western seaboard. Recent genetic research suggests that the toads possibly crossed a land bridge and that the many plants and trees formerly grew in the now submerged portions of the landscape to the south of St.Michaels Mount and the Scillies.
LOY (saint). Loy or Eloy is the British name for St. Eligius, c. 588-660,feast day December 1st who became bishop of Noyon. As goldsmith to Clothaire II, Dagobert I, and Clovis II of France, he was famous for his corrugated gold chalices, for his courtesy and refinement. He incurred King Dagobert's displeasure for refusing to swear. While he was a courtier, under his fine clothes and adornments he wore a hair shirt. After embracing the religious life, he became known for his acts of mercy and concern for the poor, and he was invoked as patron saint of the poor and of poorhouses after his death. He was also adviser and confessor to several Benedictine convents. St. Godebertha, St. Gertrude, and St. Aurea were the three abbesses with whom he was especially connected.
Madame Eglentyne, a Benedictine abbess, swears by St. Loy, Gen Prol 120. The saint is invoked as patron saint of blacksmiths and carriers
Samhain is about remembrance, communication across time and space and especially honouring our ancestors and remembering our deceased loved ones. It is also a transition point in the yearly cycle. Winter is just around the corner, the harvest is complete and longer nights and shorter days are upon us. The sun's power is waning and leaves are falling from the trees. In modern Ireland and Scotland, the name by which Halloween is known in the Gaelic language is still Oíche/Oidhche Shamhna, and it is still the custom in some areas to set a place for the dead at the Samhain feast, and to tell tales of the ancestors on that night. The of opening a door or window in the west for the beloved dead, who are specifically invited to attend, is central to this ancient custom. Many leave a candle or other light burning in a western window to guide the dead ancestors home. Divination for the coming year is performed, and this is a time for deep communion with God, Spirit or the localised deities of the district, especially those whom folklore mentions as being particularly connected with this festival.